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A citation or bibliographic citation is a reference to a book, article, web page, or other published item with sufficient details to uniquely identify the item. Unpublished writings or speech, such as personal communications, are also sometimes cited. Citations are provided in scholarly works, bibliographies and indexes

Bibliographic management and citation formatting are central to this.

See the Wikiepedia Citation article.

Tools and standards

Citation indexes

A citation index is an index of citations between publications, allowing the user to easily establish which documents cite which other documents.

See the Citation index article for detail


Reference standards

There are many style conventions. In educational technology, the most popular one is probably APA.

  • APA
  • Chicago
  • Harward
Data formats
Stable Internet addresses
  • DOI is the most popular one, see
  • There are others

Reference/Bibliography managers

A reference manager is a tool to manage references.

Other tools

  • WebCite is an archiving system for webreferences (cited webpages and websites), which can be used by authors, editors, and publishers of scholarly papers and books, to ensure that cited webmaterial will remain available to readers in the future.




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